Ancient History : Indus Valley Civilisation
In this article we will learn about the Ancient History, Indus valley Civilisation of India. In the past examination of Railways and SSC this chapter took importance place. As per the new syllabus of RRB NTPC we are making our article that will help you in these exams.
Indus valley Civilisation is one of the four earliest civilisations of the world that are spread in different part of the world. The four civilisations are :-
Mesopotamia is spread on the bank of rivers Tigris and Euphrates, Egypt on the bank of river Nile, China spread on the bank of river Hwang Ho and Indus valley Civilisation on the bank of river Indus.
Indus Valley Civilisation
Indus Valley Civilisation is also known as Harappan civilisation. It is belongs to the periods of 2500 - 1700 BC by carbon dating.
- Dayaram Sahni first discovered Harappa in 1921. Harappa is situated at eastern Punjab in Pakistan.
- Rakhal Das (R.D) Banerjee discovered Mohanjodaro in 1922. It is situated at Larkana of sindh in pakistan.
- The word Mohanjodaro mean Mound of dead.
Geographical Extent of Indus Vaelly Civilisation
The Indus Valley Civilisation spread parts of Sindh, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, West Punjab, Gujarat, Etta Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Jami and Kashmir, Punjab and Maharashtra.
Sites of Indus Valley Civilisation
Afghanistan :- Mundigak and shortughai,
Pakistan :- Harrappa, Mohanjodaro, Chanhu-Daro, Sutkagendor, etc.
India :- Lothal (Gujarat), Rangpur (Gujarat), Sukotda (Gujarat), Kalibangan ( Rajasthan), Banwani (Hissar) and Alamgirpur (western UP).
Town planning of Indus Valley Civilisation
Town planning was Elaborate, it follows the grid system. Towns are divided into large rectangular blocks. Streets are cutting across one another at right angle.
They used burnt brick of good quality, drainage system was good, town were divided into two parts - citadel for ruling class and lower part for common people.
- In Mohenjodaro, a big public bath (Great Bath) used for religious bathing measuring 12 m by 7 m and 2.4 m deep, has been found.
- The 6 Granaries is found in Harappa.
Agriculture In Indus Valley Civilisation
Agriculture was the backbone of the civilisation. They grew Wheat, Barley, Rai, Millet, Peas, Sesame, Mustard, Rice, Cotton, dates, melon, etc.
- Indus people are the first to produce cotton.
- Rice Husk is found in Lothal.
Domestication of Animals
In Indus Valley Civilisation animal rearing was practised. It is evident from the discovery of the Humped Bull.
They domesticated Buffaloes, sheep, asses, Oxen, Goats, Pigs, Elephants, Dogs, Cats, etc.
Remains of Horse from Surkotada and Camel bones are reported at Kalibangan.
Art and craft of Indus People
- The Harrapan culture belongs to the Bronze Age.
- Potter,s wheel was in used.
- Bronze image of the famous dancing girl, identified as devadasi has been found at Mohenjodaro.
Economic Life of Indus Valley People
- Barter System was there. 16 was the unit of measurement.
- Harappan seals made of steatite, had design on one side and other materials has been found at Mesopotamia. Pashupati seal was the most important.
Religious Life of Indus Valley People
- Main object of worship was the Mother Goddess.
- Phallus (lingam) and yoni worship was also prevalent.
- Many tree (Pipal), animal (Bull), birds (Dove, pigeon) and Stones were worshipped.
Script of Indus valley Civilisation
The script of Indus valley Civilisation is Pictographic. Fish symbol is most represented. Letters are written from right to left in first line and then left to right in second line. This style of writing is known as Boustrophedon.
Decline of Indus Valley Civilisation
There are many different theories that shows the decline of Indus Culture some of are Invasion of Aryans, recurrent floods, social breakup of Harappan, earthquakes, major ecological changes etc.