Monday, April 1, 2019

A quick Look on Buddhism and its Philosophy

Short Notes On Buddhism and its Philosophy

Buddhism

Founder :- 

Goutam Buddha Or Sakyamuni Original name was Siddharatha.

Born:- 

563 BC at Lumbani, Kapilvastu on Vaisakh Purnima day in Nepal. He belongs to Kashtriya Clan.

Faimily members :- 

His father Suddhodhana was Saka ruler.
Mother name was Mahamaya who died after 7 day of his birth. He was brought by stepmother Gautami. He Married at the age 16 to Yashodhara. He had a son named Rahul.

Renunciation :- 

At the age of 29 year after witnessing four scene in sequence an Old man, a sick-man, a dead body and a ascetic.

Nirvana :- 

At 35 year of age at Bodh Gaya under Pipal Tree on the bank of river Niranjan (Phalgu) on the 49th day of meditation.

First Sermon :- 

He gave his first sermon which is known as Dharmachakra Pravartna at Sarnath, where his five disciples had settled.

Death :- 

He died at the age of 80 years in 483 BC at Kusinagar in UP .

Symbols that represents Major Events of Buddha's life

Lotus or Bull :- Birth of Gautam Buddha
Horse :- Mahabhinishkramana or Renunciation
Bodhi Tree :- Niravana or Enlightment
8-spoked wheel :- Dharmachkara parvartna (First Sermon)
Stupa :- Mahaparinirvana ( Death)

Teaching of Buddha

Four Nobel Truth :-

  1. The World is full of sorrow.
  2. The cause of sorrow is desire.
  3. If desire are conquered, Nirvana can be achieved.
  4. This can be achieved by following the eightfold path (astangika marga)

Eight-fold Path:-

  1. Right understanding
  2. Right thought
  3. Right Speech
  4. Right Action
  5. Right Livelihood
  6. Right Effort
  7. Right Mindfulness
  8. Right Concentration

Three Jewels (Tri Ratna) of Buddhism

  1. The Buddha (The enlightened)
  2. Dhamma (Doctrine of Buddhism)
  3. Sangha(Order of Buddhism)

Sects of Buddhism

Hinayana or lesser vehicle :- its followers believed in the original teaching of the Buddha. They did not believe in the idal worship they believe in Karma. Pali, the languag of the masses, was used by Hinayana Buddhists. Ashoka patronised Hinayana Buddhism.

Mahayana or greater vehicle :- its followers believed in the heavenliness of the Buddha. It believed in idol worship. Sanskrit, the language of scholars, was used by Mahayana Buddhists. Kaniska and Harshvardhana supported Mahayana.

Vajrayana or vehicle of thunder bolt :- its followers believed that salvation be best attained by acquiring the magical power which they called Vajra. The chief divinities of this new sect were the Taras. It became popular in eastern India, particularly Bengal and Bihar.

Hinayana Literature, Tripitakes :-

Vinaya Pitaka :- Rules of monastic discipline for monks.

Sutta Pitaka :- Collection of Buddha's sermon.

Abhidhamma Pitaka :- Philosophies of Buddha's teachings.

Buddhist Counncils

Year Place Chairman King
483 BC    Rajgriha Mahakashyapa    Ajatshatru
383 BC    Vaishali Sabakami Kalashka
250 BC    Patliputra Mogaliputta
Tissa
Ashoka
72 AD    Kundalvan 
Kashmir
Vasumitra,
Ashwaghosha
Kanishaka

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